<!--#set var="TITLE" value="Exaggerated Heart Rate Oscillations During Two Meditation Techniques"-->
<!--#set var="USELOCALCSS" value="1"-->
Heart rate time series for 5 different groups of healthy subjects can be found
in text form in the subdirectories of this one:</p>
<li><a href="chi/">chi</a>: <em>Chi meditation group</em>. There are
two time series for each of the eight subjects (C1, C2, ... C8),
denoted by record names with the suffix <tt>pre</tt> for the
pre-meditation period and <tt>med</tt> for the meditation period.
Each series is about one hour in duration.</li>
<li><a href="yoga/">yoga</a>: <em>Kundalini Yoga meditation
group</em>. As for the Chi group, there are <tt>pre</tt> and
<tt>med</tt> series for each of the four subjects (Y1, Y2, Y3,
Y4). Durations range from 17 to 47 minutes.</li>
<li><a href="normal/">normal</a>: <em>Spontaneous breathing group</em>
(N1, N2, ... N11). Volunteers were recorded while sleeping.
Durations are 6 hours each, except for N3 (4.6 hours).</li>
<li><a href="metron/">metron</a>: <em>Metronomic breathing group</em>
(M1, M2, ... M14). Volunteers were recorded while supine and
breathing at a fixed rate of 0.25 Hz for 10 minutes.</li>
<li><a href="ironman/">ironman</a>: <em>Elite athletes</em> (I1, I2, ... I9).
Subjects participated in the
<a href="http://www.ironmanlive.com/" target="other">Ironman Triathlon</a>;
the recordings were obtained during sleeping hours before the event.
Durations range from 1 to 1.7 hours.</li>
A detailed description of these 5 groups can be found in the original
article (reference below).</p>
For each recording, in addition to the text file, there are (in this directory)
a binary annotation file (with suffix <tt>.qrs</tt>) and a text header file
(with suffix <tt>.hea</tt>), written in the standard formats used for other
PhysioBank databases. Each set of three files has a common record name
composed of a group identifier and a subject identifier (number). Although all
beats are marked normal in these recordings, there may be small numbers of
The text files contain the same information as in the annotation and header
files, and may be reproduced from the annotation and header files using the
program <a href="/physiotools/wag/ihr-1.htm"><tt>ihr</tt></a>, available here.
The first column in each text file is the elapsed time since the beginning of
the recording (in seconds), and the second column is the instantaneous heart
rate (in beats/minute). Note that these recordings generally contain lengthy
unannotated intervals preceding the first annotation.</p>
Peng C-K, Mietus JE, Liu Y, Khalsa G, Douglas PS, Benson H, Goldberger AL.
<a href="/physiobank/database/meditation/">Exaggerated Heart Rate
Oscillations During Two Meditation Techniques</a>. <i>International
Journal of Cardiology</i> <b>70</b>:101-107, 1999.</p>
</div> <!-- end reference -->